From our Sumatran tiger conservation volunteering holiday in Indonesia

The Rimbang Baling wildlife reserve is a 136,000 hectare patch of rainforest on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The reserve is home to a variety of wildlife, with the most charismatic being the Critically Endangered Sumatran tiger. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Indonesia established their Subayang Research Station just outside the border of the reserve in 2010 and have been working actively in area ever since, trying to preserve the forest and in particular the elusive Sumatran tiger. It is estimated that thirteen tigers currently live in the reserve.

Overall, the Sumatran tiger population has dwindled and currently only around three hundred remain in the wild. The dramatic drop in tiger numbers is a direct result of habitat loss and illegal poaching of tigers and their prey species. For the past three years, Biosphere Expeditions has been working closely with WWF Indonesia, supporting their monitoring and community outreach efforts in the region. This August, groups of citizen scientists from seven nations around the world helped the WWF tiger scientist Febri Anggriawan Widodo to survey the rainforest. “This year we focused on the buffer zone, which is a very important area as this is the region most vulnerable to encroachment by illegal logging. This is also where we have a gap in our data and help is most needed”, explains Febri.

Two groups of Biosphere Expeditions citizen scientists placed eleven camera traps in the forest along the northern buffer zone and carried out surveys of any evidence of tigers or their prey species, as well as recording any illegal logging and poaching activity they encountered. “There much illegal logging in the buffer zone. Every day we come across cut logs and boats towing those logs down the river” says Claire Howells, an expedition team member from England.

Ever since the Dutch colonised Indonesia, local communities have also relied heavily on rubber plantations for their livelihoods. Rubber trees can grow in amongst the native forest and as such have relatively little impact on the environment. However, with the invention of synthetic rubber, the prices for natural rubber have dropped and now the plantations are not enough to sustain the local population. With limited opportunities in the area, people are turning to illegal logging and palm oil plantations.

“Perhaps the most important work that we do is community outreach” explains Febri. “We need to educate local communities about the importance of preserving the rainforest, and we need to provide alternative income sources.” The Biosphere Expeditions teams have been supporting WWF in their outreach work, both by visiting local schools to tell children about the importance of the forest and its wildlife, and by carrying out village interviews to help understand the perception of tigers and the reserve in the local communities. While most of the people interviewed believe that tigers are important to Indonesia and should be protected, the team did encounter a man who wanted the entire reserve cut down and made into palm oil plantations.

Hopefully the work carried out by WWF and Biosphere Expeditions can protect the Sumatran tiger from the same fate as the Javanese tiger, which is now extinct.  The Javanese tiger decline started in the 1900s when much of the island’s forest were converted to teak plantations. This meant that tiger habitat shrank drastically, along with their food supply. The last sighting of a Javanese tiger was in 1976, when much of the Javanese tiger’s food supply and habitat had already disappeared. The WWF office in Central Sumatra are currently working on a 10 year management plan for the Rimbang Baling reserve, which has been identified as an important tiger habitat. As part of the management plan, they are lobbying the government to upgrade the status of the reserve to National Park, as this would increase the amount of resources spent on protecting the reserve.

“This expedition has really opened my eyes to the problems facing the forests of Sumatra. I hope it isn’t too late for the tigers and I am proud to have played my part in its fight for survival”, says Matthew Kaller, an expedition team member from the USA.

A selection of pictures, many of which were kindly provided by Malte Clavin, is below. Biosphere Expeditions would also like to thank the SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Conservation Fund for its support.

From our snow leopard volunteering expedition in the Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan

Five years on from the initial pledge from twelve nations at the “Snow Leopard Conservation and the Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection Programme” forum, Biosphere Expeditions continues to contribute to snow leopard protection in Kyrgyzstan. Their snow leopard conservation expedition to the Kyrgyz Ala Too mountain range, in close cooperation with NABU Kyrgyzstan, gives local people and international citizen scientists the chance to come and play an active and hands-on part in the conservation of this iconic species.

2017 saw the twelve countries reconvene in Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital, to update the status of their pledges of five years ago. Controversially, and not supported by Biosphere Expeditions, some experts called for the IUCN status of the snow leopard to be changed from Endangered to Vulnerable, even though only 2% of the snow leopard’s range has been studied scientifically.

Biosphere Expeditions’ study has yielded important results in a region that has not been studied properly since the 1980s. A report to the Kyrgyz government is being prepared by the expedition scientist Dr. Volodymyr Tytar for 2018. This report will recommend that Kyrgyz Ala Too be protected as a wildlife sanctuary, specifically to benefit the snow leopard.

The snow leopard, like many species, is threatened by poaching, retaliatory killings and habitat loss. It is estimated that fewer than 7,500 snow leopards remain in the wild. One goal formulated in Bishkek is the 20/20 pledge – to protect 20 snow leopard landscapes that have over 100 breeding adults by 2020, and to promote sustainable development in areas where the species lives.

“This is as big as it gets in terms of top-level conservation news”, says Dr. Tytar, “and it is a privilege to be part of the challenge, together with my colleagues in field science, local people and international citizen scientists, to preserve this iconic cat. But what we do goes far beyond a single cat species, beautiful as it is in its own right, because successful species conservation is all about creating positive impact well beyond the target species, namely for those people that share their daily lives and landscapes with the snow leopard. As specified in the Conservation Strategy for Snow Leopard in Russia, 2012-2022, much can be achieved in the socio-economic context of snow leopard conservation by ‘…developing collaborations with such internationally known organisations as Biosphere Expeditions…’ (p.81). And this is exactly what we have set out do with our research expedition here in Kyrgyzstan, which I am very proud of”, Dr. Tytar adds.

“Four of the key themes at the Bishkek conference as ways forward in snow leopard conservation were private conservation initiatives, local involvement, capacity-building and ecotourism”, says Dr. Tytar. “Our project ticks all those boxes beautifully in an expedition that does it all. Funded by the private donations of our citizen science participants, we involve local people and organisations and bring benefits to herders and other people on the ground. For us these are the key factors to ensure the future of the snow leopard in Kyrgyzstan and elswhere”, Dr. Tytar concludes.

Over the past four years, Dr. Tytar has been able to produce GIS models that transform collected data into visual representations that suggest locations within the study site that are suitable habitat for snow leopards. “Using these models we have been able to find sings of both snow leopard prey species and the snow leopard itself,” says Dr. Tytar. “With each new year’s data we are refining the model and gaining a better understanding of the snow leopard population within the Kyrgyz Ala Too Range.”

A new initiative to gather more data for more of the year was started this summer also. Community members from the surrounding area were trained in camera trapping techniques in order to extend the study season another six months. Essentially, these community members will continue to monitor camera traps within the Kyrgyz Ala Too before and after future expeditions. “This new incentive will be a great opportunity for local communities to learn more about their natural habitat and become more interested in many aspects of conservation,” suggested Jana Schweizer, a citizen scientist from the USA.

Key points of future Biosphere Expeditions snow leopard expedition to the mountains of Kyrgyzstan are:

1. Continue to evaluate and map the current status of snow leopard populations in the Kyrgyz Ala too range.

2. The fifth expedition will take place between June and August 2018 and will continue to work in close co-operation with the Bishkek office of German conservation organisation NABU (Naturschutzbund = nature conservation alliance) and its “Gruppa Bars”, an anti-poaching and snow leopard ranger group, as well as the newly created community monitoring group.

3. Local people, community monitors as well as student placements, as well as international citizen science volunteers from around the world will continue to join in the effort and, through their collective effort and funding, make it possible. Anyone can take part and details about the expedition and how to join are at www.biosphere-expeditions.org/tienshan.

A picture selection from the expedition is below

From our scuba diving conservation holiday with whale sharks and coral reefs of the Maldives

Maldives: Bleaching devastates vulnerable inner, sheltered reefs, whilst the more resilient outer reefs with stronger currents, bounce back

Two Biosphere Expeditions Reef Check survey teams have been laying underwater transects over a two-week period from 15 – 28 July 2017 in order to get a clearer idea of the impact of the April/May 2016 bleaching event. Biosphere Expeditions has been collecting these types of data from Ari atoll since 2011, visiting the same sites repeatedly in order to create a reliable dataset.

It was soon apparent that many inner reef sites had not recovered from the bleaching and that hard coral had reduced dramatically to an average of only 8% . Over time, many of these corals will be broken down into rubble, so it is essential that grazers – parrotfish and surgeonfish continue to do the job of cleaning the dead coral of algae, in order to allow new coral ‘recruits’ to settle on the old dead coral.

However, fish stocks are depleted too. Important fish, such as parrotfish (for grazing the reef of algae that colonise corals after death) and grouper (an important food fish), were recorded, but not in any great numbers, which is another cause for concern. Grouper numbers, for example, were woefully low, with densities averaging only about 1 individual per 100 sqm of reef. Parrotfish, on the other hand, were abundant, sometimes reaching densities of 14 individuals per 100 sqm – densities at which the fish should be able to graze away the emerging algae.

Hope for inner reef remains in some isolated spots, such as Holiday thilla, to the south of Ari atoll, where many coral recruits were recorded. Overall, though, the picture was one of coral death, destruction and decline.

The picture was more encouraging for outer reefs that are more heavily dominated by Porites colonies. Here, much of the reef appeared to have totally recovered from the heating in 2016, with hard coral cover at an average of 38%.

The second half of the expedition visited sites further afield in Vaavu Atoll, attempting to glean information from historic survey sites first surveyed in the late 1990s.

Here too there was a mix of good and largely bad news, with healthy sites generally located in more exposed and southerly locations on atolls.

The expedition was joined by Maldivians and an international team of fee-paying citizen scientists. Maldivians ranged from members of the new NGO Reef Check Maldives , created as a result of Biosphere Expeditions’ placement and capacity-building programme for local people, to consultant marine ecologists, government staff, and Maldivians working for the tourist industry.

We are encouraged by the keen participation of our Maldivian colleagues and look forward to seeing go Reef Check Maldives from strength to strength. Because this is what is needed in the absence of any sensible government strategy that balances economic development against protecting the reef foundation on which the country itself, as well as its economy, identity and culture is built on: Civil society stepping up where the government is failing its people to protect the nation’s reefs and with it the nation’s wellbeing.

The expedition is kindly supported by the Marine Conservation Society and The Rufford Foundation.

A selection of pictures from the expedition is below.

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Update from our conservation holiday protecting leatherback and other sea turtles on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

The last egg

Each night during the leatherback turtle nesting season on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a race takes place. A race for the precious turtle eggs between poachers, who demand a high price for the eggs on the black market, and conservationists who try to protect the Critically Endangered leatherback turtle population. By the end of each night, not a single egg is left on the beach.

“The eggs fetch one dollar each on the black market, and with an average clutch size of 80 eggs that is a lot of money”, explains Fabian Carrasco from Mexico, the onsite expedition scientist for Latin American Sea Turtles (LAST).

Fabio Carrasco

So citizen scientists/egg protectors patrol the beach each night, hoping to get to a turtle laying its nest before a poacher does. “We reached the turtle only five minutes before a poacher walked by. It is such a good feeling when you manage to save a clutch of eggs”, says Candice Cox, a research assistant from the USA.

Collecting eggs

When a nesting turtle is encountered, the volunteers carefully collect all the eggs, as well as measure and tag the animal. The eggs are then brought back to a fenced and guarded hatchery, where they are protected from poachers and other non-human predators until they hatch.

Guarding the hatchery

Biosphere Expeditions work closely on all this with LAST, and for the second year in a row a group of Biosphere Expeditions citizen scientists have been onsite, actively patrolling the beach and helping out with the important work.

Lindsay Hickman, an expedition participant from the UK considers “guarding the hatchery a big responsibility.  And it feels very good to know you are really helping.” At the time of writing, the hatchery held 4190 eggs, which amounts to over $4000 on the black market. “Without all the patrolling and safekeeping, 100% of the eggs would end up in bars and shops around the country, producing zero offspring, as has happened in the years before we took action”, explains Carrasco. “Turtle eggs are highly revered in Costa Rica, as they are believed to be an aphrodisiac. When turtles mate the male holds on to the female for several hours and the local legend is that by eating the eggs, this sexual stamina will be acquired. However, the actual mating only takes a couple of minutes and the eggs are in fact very high in cholesterol, and as such the effect is rather the opposite.”

To add insult to injury, each weekend poachers from surrounding areas also visit the beach, multiplying the number of poachers roaming the beach. “It is a known fact that on this beach there are few repercussions from poaching. However, the coastguard has started to visit the beach more often and I believe this is because we are around to put pressure on”, says Carrasco. “For example, last night was incredible. The coast guard arrested three poachers and rescued two clutches of eggs.” This is good news on all levels, not only did two nests get saved, but it also sends a message to other poachers that it is no longer safe to poach on this beach.

Biosphere Expeditions have also been testing out a new thermal camera to aid conservationists in detecting the turtles before poachers do. “I was impressed at how far away the thermal imaging system could detect a turtle” says Valeria, a local Costa Rican, funded by Biosphere Expeditions as part of its placement programme. “The nesting turtle could be spotted as a red blob on the screen from about 30 meters away, which gives us an edge over the poachers”.

Poacher & dog

Turtle on the beach

All in all the Biosphere Expeditions project saved eighteen nests, totalling 1397 eggs. “There is simply no substitute for ‘foot soldiers’ patrolling the beach at night. The volunteers by buying drinking coconuts, coconut oil and locally made jewellery also provide an income not based on poaching for the local community”, explains Carrasco. “And in this poor community without many options, this is vital”.

A selection of pictures of the expedition is below:

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From our conservation holiday volunteering with lynx, wolves, bears and wildcats in the Carpathian mountains of Slovakia

Great number of brown bear confirmed in Veľká Fatra National Park, Slovakia

From 1 – 18 February 2017 the Biosphere Expeditions conservation project on large carnivores (lynx, wolf and bear) ran for its fifth year in the Veľká Fatra National Park in Slovakia. 17 citizen scientists from all over the world were trained up and led by Slovak scientist Tomas Hulik and an expedition leader from Biosphere Expeditions.

During ten survey days the team walked 344.27 km of transects, recording tracks, sightings and markings (urine, scat, hair) and collecting scat and urine samples of wolf, lynx and bear for DNA analysis. The team also set up 21 camera traps.

This year’s findings include 98 recordings of bear, 66 of wolf and 20 of lynx. This is the highest number of bear recordings since the project started in 2013. “A lot of food is available in the forest this year, first and foremost the nuts of beech trees”, Tomas Hulik explains, “so there is no strong reason for the bears to hibernate. We have confirmed bear presence throughout our study site and our results now allow a much more realistic estimation of brown bear numbers within the National Park”.

Wolf signs recorded this year confirm the presence of three packs occupying different territories within the national park and beyond. Lynx are also present in the park “and there may have been some non-resident individuals around too this year, since the expedition took place during the lynx mating season”, explains Hulik. A beautiful camera trap picture taken by the expedition, showing distinctive coat markings, means that one of the lynxes can now be re-identified during future expeditions. Eight recordings of wildcat tracks confirm their presence in the study area. “A great amount of data have been collected again this year. All information will be evaluated in detail in the expedition report”, Hulik adds.

Other findings during the surveys include tracks of red and roe deer, fox, otter, wild boar, pine marten, hare, hazel grouse, squirrel and other species. Golden eagles were also sighted three times.

The expedition will run again in February 2018. More information is available at www.biosphere-expeditions.org/slovakia. The expedition report with full details, conclusions and recommendations will be published before the next expedition on www.biosphere-expeditions.org/reports.

A selection of pictures is below.

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From our citizen science project volunteering with elephants in Thailand

Yesterday, (Monday) the team agreed that the “cold” season has finally begun, as  jumpers were worn in the morning for the very first time (please note that “cold” means that temperatures have dropped below 22 degrees C ;)). Except for one single morning, it has been sunny and dry, allowing us great surveys in the forest.

We spent five hours with the elephants on Sunday, so including today’s final forest excursion, we’ve managed to complete two full-day surveys of each elephant between 8:00 and 16:00. While each of us followed one elephant to record its behaviour, scientist Talia collected foraging data and collected five new plant samples the elephants fed on that have yet to be identified.

Maria & Kerri went to three of the village homestays in the morning to conduct interviews. Interviews is another activity of the expedition, but since we’ve been so busy with the elephant surveys thus far, we haven’t had the chance yet to include this activity into our schedule. It was good, though, to get the project started of writing up a profile of each homestay family. It’ll provide some basic socio-economic background information. Tawamoh, Jadee and LuJet, the three interviewees, each answered that their biggest concern was that visitors don’t like being at their house or getting sick. Little surprise, then, that we have been spoilt by such great hospitality and friendliness.

Marion and I walked the second biodiversity trail starting from base in the morning, completing our week’s to-do list. We’ve recorded twelve different species (mainly butterflies and dragonflies), took ID pictures, marked survey points in the GPS and logged the track before getting back to base for lunch and then heading off into the forest again.

This expedition’s last encounter with the elephants was quite special. After we found them bathing & drinking at a waterhole, they started wandering off uphill to where we came from leading us straight back to the main path to base. Together with the mahouts we enjoyed another half hour with them close-by but finally had to say good-bye.

As I write this, this year’s expedition is already over. The team left Ban Naklang this morning while Kerri, Thalia and have gone through our de-brief procedure, packed up the equipment and cleaned up our base. The three of us will go into Chiang Mai tomorrow morning.

I would like to say thank you to everyone involved in getting this project off the ground. Thanks to all team members for their contribution and hard work. Your input & help is much appreciated and we from Biosphere Expeditions and KSES will continue our work for the elephant’s welfare and future in Thailand. A big thank you also goes also to the mahouts who kept us safe and the Karen hilltribe village people who made their home ours. It’s been a very special experience and we look forward to returning next year.

Safe travels everyone and I hope we meet again.

All the best,

Malika
Expedition leader

From our working holiday volunteering with leopards, caracals and Cape biodiversity in South Africa

That’s all folks. Once again we must call time on our expedition in South Africa. Our citizen scientists have departed, the kit is packed and now I must make my travels north, back to Scotland. But what a month in the fynbos it has been – expeditions never fail to surprise me – they offer difference, diversity, discovery, data and sometimes adversity.

Before we talk about the discovery and data, let me initially offer some thanks. First off, to our participants, who stepped up to the daily challenge of data collection to achieve our collective goals of better understanding the ecology and conservation issues of the fynbos. Thank you for your contribution towards advancing knowledge, and making this expedition a success.

Before that, we owe a big thank you to Melda, Gurli and Barbara, for the continual provision of culinary delights, and their botanical wisdom! A big thanks also to John and Lizzie, for sharing their time, knowledge and enthusiasm for the Cape rockjumper work and all things avian. We would also like to thank the extended Lee family (Anja, Elli, Charlie, Chris & Elaine), for not just hosting the expedition, but their un-ending hospitality. And finally, our enormous collective thanks go to Alan, our leader in all things scientific. It is indeed a privilege to share in your world and work with such a dedicated scientist and committed conservationist.

So what of the success I mentioned? Well, success is a strange metric to measure when it comes to expeditions. It is influenced by the people you meet, the experiences you have, the challenges you overcome…to mention a few. Ultimately, it is perhaps most dependent on your expectations.

The expedition’s expectations focussed on a few key field research activities. Of course much data still need to be crunched from the various field surveys and just think of all those camera traps still clicking and collecting data….long beyond our departure. But what have we achieved in the past month?

In case you have forgotten, here are just some of our highlights:

  • Several new camera trap monitoring stations have been established to monitor leopard, caracal and other mammal activity and movement patterns;
  • We completed as much small mammal trapping as we did in the first two years of this expedition, recording three new species at Blue Hill in 2017;
  • Several hundred camera images from Blue Hill have be analysed, identified and catalogued, revealing activity of leopards and African wildcat across a number of locations;
  • Over 12 km of nocturnal transects surveys have been completed across the Blue Hill area;
  • We have assisted with multiple bird and biodiversity surveys across six sites in the Karoo (covering around 3000 km);
  • Assisted bird biologists (John & Lizzie) with ongoing doctoral research on Cape Rockjumper’s at Blue Hill (a bird species endemic to the fynbos);
  • Established nearly 300 permanent monitoring plots for endemic honeybush plants used to make tea;
  • Completed the first diurnal and nocturnal mammal maps for Blue Hill;
  • Undertook further bat monitoring and entered/analysed two years worth of sonogram data;
  • Collected multiple leopard scats for DNA analysis, and kept searching for leopards.

In isolation, these may just seem like bits of data, as field research rarely gives us instant results or fast answers to our bigger questions. To paraphrase one of our participants, we are simply uncovering and fitting together small pieces of the fynbos puzzle. And as we slowly put them together, we will reveal a bigger picture of how this fire-driven ecosystem works and sustains the larger predators such as Cape leopards. Arguably, only with this knowledge can we adequately conserve them.

So to my mind, with this bounty of new information, we have been more than successful. I refer you to one of the earlier blogs at the start of the expedition, when we set out Alan’s aims and expectations. We have achieved all of these, and more. No matter whether you are a citizen scientist, scientist or expedition leader, we all go on expeditions with a varying mix of nerves, hope and expectation. If your expectations are realistic, then with a bit of graft, success is often forthcoming.

Thank you for all your efforts and I, for one, look forward to returning next year.

Best wishes to you all

Craig Turner
Expedition leader

From our citizen science project volunteering with elephants in Thailand

On Friday our task was to collect data on the biodiversity trail. Maria, Marion, Talia & I enjoyed a beautiful walk along the river, past the village temple and through rice fields that will be harvested soon. The usually small & shallow stream we had to cross on our way was almost knee high with a strong current from heavy rainfall during the early morning hours. When we reached the start point of the transect ,we stopped, set up our GPSs, scanned the surrounding area for wildlife and did so every 50 m at marked points on the 500 m long transect. Findings were photographed and recorded in the datasheet. We arrived back at base in the early afternoon, where Maria enjoyed identifying butterly species from photographs and Marion went of to support the local community by having had a weaving lesson with Mae, on of our friends here in the hill tribe village.

Today (Saturday) it was back to elephant data collection.  We left base at 07:00 and Maria & Kerri had a comparatively easy day with their study objects who did not wander through the forest much. Marion and I, on the other hand, had to follow “our” elephants down to the river, then up into and through very dense vegetation. As if this wasn’t enough of a workout, the elephants foraged almost “on the run”, so we were kept very busy for the entire four survey hours.

While I am writing this Maria & Talia are busy with data entry, while Marion is supporting the community some more by getting a Thai massage from a blind man in the village.

From our citizen science project volunteering with elephants in Thailand

We’ve had a few battles here on the inaugural Thailand elephant expedition – with the weather (unseasonal rain), terrain (try walking up a steep hillside after a foraging elephant, especially when it’s slippery from rain), the local language (Karen, which sounds very alien to Indo-European language speakers), guts (some people down with gastro problems; we’re not sure where this came from, but it’s here with a vengeance). So the team has shrunk, but those who could go out enjoyed up-close-and-personal encounters with our study elephants.

It’s Thursday and we’ve just finished our second elephant survey. We observed the elephants for four hours recording data every five minutes. The weather too has been kinder, with temperatures ranging between 24 and 29 degrees C and partly cloudy sky. Keep your fingers crossed that it stays that way!

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From our working holiday volunteering with leopards, caracals and Cape biodiversity in South Africa

The devil is the detail, when it comes to expeditions. This is true of the planning, organisation and execution of most of the fieldwork. The latter also requires a combination of hard work, flexibility, patience and luck. Particularly when you are trying to get data on Cape leopard and caracals.
We are all realistic that only the ‘lucky’ will encounter them face-to-face. However, we have technology on our side, in the form of camera traps. The ‘detail’ is picking where to locate them, so you have to think like a cat and site them where they will hopefully pass. These camera traps give us ‘eyes’ in the field in multiple locations, over a huge area and every hour of the day or night.

We also have the eyes of our team in the field every day, also looking for signs of these predators, which can range from tracks to scratched trees to scat. We have all been issued with ‘scat bags’, so potential leopard scat can be collected, verified by DNA analysis, and in turn help build a DNA database, to track movements of leopards – dead or alive. A powerful conservation tool from such small evidence.

Detail in scientific or conservation terms often equates to data. Whether this comes from our mammal mapping, small mammal trapping or camera trapping, it all helps to inform our understanding of how leopards, caracals and other species (often the prey base) use the fynbos environment. However, we shouldn’t become fixated on the predators, as we are also here to understand the wider biodiversity of this environment, which includes the ongoing work on the bird and vegetation. After all, we are not on safari, where we are spoon-fed the big five from the comfort of an air-conditioned bus.

The weekend did give us a new understanding and a chance to get some historical perspective on the landscape. A morning walking to some rock art sites and viewing some stone artifacts (e.g. stone hand axes) from the wider area gave us alternative appreciation of how people and wildlife once used and survived in this landscape.

Our modern day ‘survival’ in terms of fieldwork at least, is often vehicle dependent. It’s a long walk over tough terrain to most of our field sites, so vehicles are vital, but things go wrong. And an afternoon fixing the rear shock absorbers on one of our field vehicles (thanks Steve) was another detail that needed addressing but means our fieldwork can continue into its last week.

So as we enter the home straight of this year’s expedition, we already know the team’s hard work and patience in the field has delivered some great data. The checks on the camera traps will now begin and fingers crossed we’ve got the detail of the set-up right. We just need a bit of luck on our side to reveal more data on our target species.

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